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July 10, 2020

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In Affirming a Preliminary Injunction Against Drug Companies, Second Circuit Finds Coercion in Product Hopping Scheme

In an earlier posting, I wrote about the lawsuit filed on December 10, 2014 by the Attorney General for the State of New York, People of the State of New York v. Actavis, PLC and Forest Laboratories, LLC .1  In that action, New York challenges on antitrust grounds plans by the defendant pharmaceutical companies to cease marketing the drug Namenda IR and substitute in the market-place a newer drug, Namenda XR.  Both drugs are used for the treatment of moderate to advanced Alzheimer’s disease.  Namenda IR and Namenda XR are the brand names for the drug memantine, and defendants have a monopoly for memantine in the United States. On May 22, 2015, the Second Circuit issued an Order affirming a preliminary injunction granted by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, enjoining Actavis and Forest Laboratories (“Forest”) from discontinuing the marketing of Namenda IR, and substituting its newer drug Namenda XR.2  The Second Circuit filed an opinion under seal concurrently with the issuance of its Order, allowing the parties to submit proposed redactions by May 26, 2015.  The court of appeals on May 28, 2015 issued a redacted version of its opinion.  At the time of my previous posting on the antitrust suit brought by New York against Actavis and Forest, the Second Circuit had not released it redacted version of its opinion.     

In its opinion, the Second Circuit ruled that the district court did not abuse its discretion in granting a preliminary injunction, as sought by New York, precluding the defendants from implementing a marketing scheme known as “product hopping.”  This tactic was a means of maintaining the defendants’ monopoly in the memantine market and precluding competition by generic brands of that drug.  Of critical import to the court of appeals was that defendants relied upon consumer coercion, rather than persuasion on the merits of competing generics.  The coercive aspect of defendants’ marketing scheme violated section 2 of the Sherman Act.3           

The Second Circuit’s ruling in People of the State of New York v. Actavis, PLC and Forest Laboratories, LLC affirming the district court’s preliminary injunction is the first appellate decision to specifically opine on the antitrust implications of product hopping in the pharmaceutical industry.  

Background

Forest holds a patent for its brand-name drug Namenda IR, with market exclusivity to expire on July 11, 2015.  On that date, Forest will no longer have market exclusivity for memantine.  Actavis and Forest issued several public statements regarding plans to withdraw Namenda IR from the market, ultimately announcing in June 2014 that Namenda IR would be available for sale until the fall of 2014.  Defendants indicated that upon withdrawal of Namenda IR from the market in the fall of 2014, its newer drug Namenda XR would be available as a substitute for the treatment of moderate to advanced Alzheimer’s disease.  Defendants took steps to notify physicians and caregivers of the discontinuance of Namenda IR and to contemplate switching from Namenda IR to Namenda XR.   

Namenda XR has the same therapeutic effect as Namenda IR.  There is a difference between the two drugs regarding time-release.  Namenda IR is the immediate-release version of that drug, whereas Namenda XR is an extended-release version. Thus, consumers would take Namenda IR twice daily; in contrast, Namenda XR would be taken once daily.  Additionally, Namenda IR is in tablet form, and Namenda XR is in capsule form.                               

There are implications for generic drug competition in the market for memantine that arise from the marketing plans announced by Actavis and Forest.  In 1984, Congress enacted the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the “Hatch-Waxman Act.”4    That statute provides for dual purposes. On the one hand, Congress allowed a manufacture of a generic drug to use an abbreviated process to obtain approval to market the drug from the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”).  Provision for an abbreviated process was to encourage price competition from  generic drugs.  The generic drug manufacturer can file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (“ANDA”) provided that the generic drug is “bioequivalent” to a previously approved brand-name drug.  This regulatory approach allows the generic manufacturer to rely on scientific data previously submitted for the brand-name drug to seek approval to market the generic drug.  The ANDA process affords generic manufacturers considerable cost savings, and a shorted period of FDA review.  The other purpose under the Hatch-Waxman Act was to incentivize drug innovation.  To do this, Congress provided that the manufacturer of a brand-name drug can obtain an additional extension of up to five years to the patent term of the drug to compensate for regulatory delay when seeking approval from the FDA for the new brand-name drug.5  Additionally, under amendments to the Hatch-Waxman Act by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997,6 provision was made for six months of non-patent “pediatric exclusivity” for qualifying pediatric research conducted by the drug manufacturer.7                  

States have drug substitution laws that either mandate or allow the substitution of a generic drug for a prescribed brand-name drug, except where the prescribing physician, or consumer, indicates otherwise. A generic drug that receives approval from the FDA under the ANDA process may be “AB- rated” by the FDA when the generic drug is “therapeutically equivalent” to its brand-name drug counterpart.  A generic drug deemed AB-rated allows a pharmacy, under a state’s substitution laws, to substitute the generic drug for the more expensive brand-name drug.  State substitution laws complement the provisions under the Hatch-Waxman Act which liberalize the drug approval process for generic drugs, to lower drug costs by encouraging greater competition from generic drugs in the market-place.            

In the antitrust lawsuit filed by New York against Actavis and Forest, the State Attorney General alleges violations of the Sherman Act8 and state antitrust laws.9  In the action, New York contends that the marketing practice of product hopping that the defendants intend to pursue will have dire consequences for competition from generic drugs for Forest’s Namenda IR that would have occurred upon the expiration of market exclusivity for Namenda IR on July 11, 2015.  This anticompetitive impact will arise, according to New York, as a direct result of defendants’ plans to stop marketing Namenda IR and “force switch” physicians and payors to use Forest’s newer drug Namenda XR prior to loss of market exclusivity for Namenda IR on July 11, 2015.10  New York argues that removal from the market of Namenda IR prior to the loss of market exclusivity for Namenda IR will thwart state substitution laws since generics for the drug Namenda IR will not have been AB- rated for the newer Namenda XR, critical to enable pharmacists to substitute a generic version for the newer drug Namenda XR.  New York contends that defendants’ scheme will thus extend the national monopoly that Forest has for memantine for the term of the patent it has for Namenda XR, to expire in 2029.    

In its lawsuit, New York argues that there is no legitimate business justification for the product hopping scheme defendants intend to pursue.  In its amended complaint, the State insists that Namenda XR lacks any meaningful benefits compared with Namenda IR.11  New York accuses the defendants of erecting barriers to entry to thwart competition from makers of the generic form of the drug Namenda IR.  The State contends that steps to force switch the prescribing of Namenda XR would impact negatively on the already “financially strapped”12 health care system, and on Alzheimer’s patients who “must bear...unwanted costs” and “unnecessary changes to their medical routine.”13

The Second Circuit’s Analysis            

On appeal, the Second Circuit ruled that the district court did not abuse its discretion in granting a preliminary injunction, enjoining Actavis and Forest from discontinuing the marketing of Namenda IR.  Applying a heightened standard under the law in the Second Circuit for review of a preliminary injunction, the court of appeals concluded that New York demonstrated a “substantial likelihood of success on the merits” of its monopolization and attempted monopolization claims under section 2 of the Sherman Act, and has made “a strong showing” that defendants’ conduct “would cause irreparable harm to competition” in the memantine drug market and to consumers.14

The Second Circuit wrote that monopoly power does not, in and of itself, raise an antitrust concern.  To establish a violation of section 2 of the Sherman Act, it must be proved that the defendant not only possessed monopoly power in the relevant market, but that it “willfully acquired or maintained that power as distinguished from growth or development as a consequence of a superior product, business acumen, or historic accident.”15  The court of appeals recognized that defendants’ patent on Namenda IR grant them a legal monopoly in the national memantine drug market until July 11, 2015.  Thus, the Second Circuit explained that the issue is whether defendants “willfully sought to maintain or attempted to maintain” that monopoly in violation of section 2.  Citing United States v. Microsoft Corp.16 the court of appeals embraced a rule-of-reason test to determine when a product change violates section 2.  It wrote that generally, courts question assertions that competition is harmed by a dominant firm’s product design changes.  Such design changes can benefit consumers and represent innovation and efficiency. Thus, the court explained that, to be anticompetitive, a dominant firm’s design changes are those that impede competition through means “other than competition on the merits.”17  Relying  on its analysis in Berkey Photo, Inc. v. Eastman Kodak Co.,18 the Second Circuit reasoned that product withdrawal or product improvement, standing alone, is not anticompetitive.  The court wrote that under Berkey Photo, when a monopolist “combines product withdrawal with some other conduct,” such that consumers are “coerced” rather than persuaded based on the merits, and to “impede competition,” such actions are anticompetitive.19  The court of appeals concluded that defendants’ plan to force switch Alzheimer’s patients from taking Namenda IR to the newer drug Namenda XR (for which generic Namenda is not therapeutically equivalent) would impede generic competition by thwarting state substitution laws for generics.  Defendants’ force switch scheme “crosses the line from persuasion to coercion and is anticompetitive.”20                                  

The Second Circuit agreed with the district court’s view that the pharmaceutical market is unique, and the critical role that state substitution laws play in facilitating price competition between brand-name drugs and generics.  Competition through state substitution laws “is the only cost-efficient means” for generic drugs to compete.21  The court of appeals explained that defendant’s plan to force patients to switch to Namenda XR would preclude generic substitution because generic Namenda IR is not AB-rated to Namenda XR.  The Second Circuit viewed defendants’ plan to force switch consumers to Namenda XR as a practice not based on competition on the merits.  As such, defendants’ scheme was exclusionary, with the anticompetitive “effect of significantly reducing usage of rivals’ products and hence protecting its own monopoly,”22 in violation of section 2 of the Sherman Act.  The court of appeals took note of the record before the lower court indicating the defendants’ own predictions on the effect of its plan to force switch consumers.  Such a scheme would convert, in defendants’ judgment, 80-100 of Namenda IR patients to Namenda XR prior to entry into the market by generic Namenda IR.  Thus, there would be virtually no meaningful market in which generics could compete based on price for Namenda IR.23  The court of appeals also took note of defendants’ own views regarding the very low prospects that consumers would revert back to the generic version of Namenda IR once they were forced to switch to Namenda XR and manufacturers were free to sell the generic version of Namenda IR.24          

The Second Circuit rejected the defendants’ procompetitive justifications for its marketing scheme as pretextual.  Relying on the record before the lower court, the court of appeals wrote that there is ample evidence indicating that defendants’ stated intent was to erect barriers to thwart generic competition, and maintain a monopoly in the memantine market.  Defendants argued that their conduct is procompetitive since introducing a new product, like Namenda XR, enhances competition and encouraging product innovation.  The Second Circuit disagreed.  It wrote that while introducing Namenda XR may, standing alone, be procompetitive, there is no competitive justification for withdrawing Namenda IR.25

The Second Circuit also concluded that New York made a strong showing “that competition and consumers will suffer irreparable harm” in the absence of the preliminary injunction awarded by the district court.26

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author, and cannot be attributed to the Office of the Inspector General for the District of Columbia Government.


1  Amended Complaint, Case No. 14-CV-7473 (RWS) (S.D.N.Y. filed Dec. 10, 2014).

2 Case No. 14-4624 (2nd Cir. May 22, 2015)

3 15 U.S.C. § 2.  

4 Pub. L. No. 98-417, codified at: 21 U.S.C. § 355, 21 U.S.C. § 2201, and 35 U.S.C. §§ 156, 271, 282.

5 35 U.S.C. § 156.  

6 Pub. L. No. 105-115.

7 35 U.S.C. § 156; 21 U.S.C. § 355a.   

8 15 U.S.C. §§ 1 and 2.  

9   New York State General Business Law §§ 340-47; New York State Executive Law § 63(12).      

10 The district court’s preliminary injunction bars defendants from withdrawing Namenda IR until 30 days after July 11, 2015, the date when generic memantine will first be available in the market.    

11 Amended complaint, par. 78.  

12 Id. at par. 6.  

13 Id. at par. 100.  

14 Slip op. at 28.  

15 Id. at 29, quoting Verizon Commc’ns Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, 540 U.S. 398, 407 (2004) (internal quotation marks and citation omitted).    

16 253 F.3d 34, 58-60 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (en banc).  

17 Slip op. at 32.  

18 603 F.2d 263 (2nd Cir. 1979).  

19 Slip op. at 35-36.  

20 Id. at 37.  

21 Id. at 40-41. 

22 Id. at 40.                  

23 Id. at 39-40.  

24 Id. at 41-42.   

25 Slip op. at 47-49.  

26 Id. at 54.

© Copryright Stuart SilvermanNational Law Review, Volume V, Number 152

TRENDING LEGAL ANALYSIS


About this Author

Stuart Silverman, Washington College Law Professor,

Mr. Silverman was an attorney with the Medicaid Fraud Control Unit in the Office of the Inspector General for the District of Columbia Government (OIG).  While with the OIG, he was designated as a Special Assistant United States Attorney and a Special Assistant Attorney General for the District of Columbia.  

Mr. Silverman has practiced health care law for most of his professional life. Prior to joining the OIG, Mr. Silverman was in private practice with Greenberg Traurig, and was also with the Office of the General Counsel for the U.S....

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