October 22, 2019

October 22, 2019

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October 21, 2019

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Federal Appeals Court Upholds Tribal Court's Personal Protection Order Against Non-Indian

On August 26, 2019, the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit upheld a Michigan Federal judge's ruling that the tribal court of the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi (NHBP) had jurisdiction to issue a personal protection order (PPO) against the non-Indian stepmother of a tribal member, including prohibitions against contacting the tribal member or "appearing within [his] sight."

Challenging the PPO in Federal court, the stepmother sued the tribal court's chief judge, the NHBP supreme court, and the NHBP. The Federal Appeals Court first affirmed the district court's dismissal of the claims against the NHBP and the NHBP supreme court on the basis of NHBP's sovereign immunity. The Appeals Court then affirmed dismissal of the stepmother's claims against the tribal court's chief judge, for whom the NHBP had waived sovereign immunity, noting that 18 U.S.C § 2265(e) specifically provides a tribal court "full civil jurisdiction to issue and enforce protection orders involving any person …." Finally, the Appeals Court rejected the stepmother's argument that the PPO was, in fact, a criminal order because violation of it subjected her to criminal sanctions by the trial court, finding that the existence of potential criminal sanctions did not change the civil nature of the order, for which the tribal court could also issue civil sanctions if a violation occurred.

© 2019 Varnum LLP


About this Author

Mark E Hills, Litigation lawyer, Varnum

Mark is a member of the firm's Litigation Practice Team, and chair of the Family Law Team, with more than 20 years' experience in federal and state court jury and non-jury trials, international, federal and state-level arbitrations, and facilitative mediations. Mark was invited to join the Litigation Counsel of America Society in 2011, an honor extended to less than one percent of all attorneys in America.

Mark is a knowledgeable and effective trial attorney for national, state and community banks, private equity holders, and receivers throughout Michigan, and has...

Fred L. Schubkegel, corporate attorney, Varnum

Fred provides general legal counsel to private business interests and nonprofit organizations. He has over 30 years of experience assisting for-profit and nonprofit companies with advice, strategies and services related to startup, growth, development and exit, including entity formation and governance, financing, contracts, mergers and acquisitions, executive compensation, asset protection and business succession planning.

Fred has extensive knowledge in real estate and economic development with a particular knack for packaging incentives and credits to make the impossible deal possible; finance with an emphasis on venture capital, angel investing and public-private partnerships; and businesses or properties impacted by environmental regulations or concerns. He is also one of Varnum’s “go to” experts for legal matters involving medical device and life science companies; the film, music and entertainment industries; business ventures of American Indian tribes; and minority business enterprises.