Medical Cannabis in Illinois: What Employers Need to Know
THE MEDICAL CANNABIS PILOT PROGRAM IN ILLINOIS
Is Illinois allowing recreational cannabis use, as is currently the case in Colorado and Washington?
No. The Illinois medical cannabis program is one of the most restrictive regulatory programs in the country, limiting individual usage and industry operations much more than a recreational cannabis state such as Colorado. The Illinois medical cannabis program is a four-year experiment. Illinois government leaders will evaluate a variety of outcomes before deciding whether to restrict, expand or modify the approved uses of cannabis.
How many patients in Illinois will be participating in the pilot program?
Currently, just over 3,000 patients have been approved by the Illinois Department of Public Health to participate in the program. Thousands more are expected to register once the program begins full operations.
How will I know if an employee is approved to participate as a patient in the pilot program?
Employees approved to participate in the program will be issued a State of Illinois identification card verifying registration with the Illinois Department of Public Health.
Are employers required to allow patients to use medical cannabis in the workplace?
No. The Illinois medical cannabis law does not require employers to permit employee use of cannabis in the workplace, even when the employee is registered as a patient in the pilot program.
Is permission to use medical cannabis required as a “reasonable accommodation” under the Americans with Disabilities Act?
Although some states have specific language in their laws that answer this question, Illinois law does not appear to include the use of medical cannabis as a required reasonable accommodation under the ADA. Although the underlying debilitating medical condition may qualify an individual for protections under the ADA, whether an employer decides to allow an employee to use medical cannabis as a reasonable accommodation under the ADA will be an individualized determination for the employer to undertake.
Am I required to tolerate medical cannabis use by an employee who works in a safety-sensitive position (i.e., a position in which the employee’s cannabis use could increase the risk of harm to the employee or others)?
No. An employer can enforce a zero-tolerance policy that disallows cannabis use by any employee, such as a physician, who works in a safety-sensitive position.
EMPLOYEE AND CANDIDATE DRUG TESTING
Can I require a medical cannabis patient who is in my employ or a candidate who I am considering hiring to undergo drug testing? What can or should I do if the employee or candidate tests positive?
In Illinois, an employer has discretion to require job candidates (as part of a conditional job offer) and employees to undergo drug testing, as long as the drug testing is conducted in a non-discriminatory manner. The employer also has the option of taking disciplinary action against a current employee who tests positive for a controlled substance (including cannabis), withdrawing an offer of employment issued to a job candidate who tests positive, or taking no action. However, the employer should be consistent in its policies and practices.
If I have contracts with the federal government, am I required to conduct drug tests for medical cannabis for job candidates and/or employees? If so, what am I required or permitted to do if a candidate or employee tests positive for cannabis use?
Some federal government contractors are required to conduct tests for drugs, including cannabis use, for employees and job candidates who are or will be performing certain safety-sensitive or security duties (e.g., owners of nuclear power plants, gas or oil pipelines, airlines and railroads). Action to be taken as a result of a positive drug test will depend on the pertinent circumstances. To ensure compliance with such requirements, employers should consult with an experienced employment law attorney for additional guidance.
Should I review and modify my personnel policies pertaining to drug use and testing? If so, what types of issues should I consider?
Yes, now is an ideal time to review personnel policies involving drug testing and protocols for responding to employee drug use and abuse. Management should carefully consider the company’s approach to drug testing of employees and develop a consistent and transparent plan for responding to drug test results.