Iran (Persia) is officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran. It is a sovereign state in Western-Asia. As the world’s 18th most populous nation, it is home to 81 million inhabitants.
The country is home to some of the world’s oldest civilizations, including the Elamite Kingdoms, which date back to 4 BC. It is a founding member of ECO, NAM, OPEC, UN, and OIC. The country has the largest natural gas reserves in the world and the fourth largest proven oil reserves, making it a major regional and middle power. The nation is also known as a multinational country which is made up of many linguistic and ethnic groups.
The country became known as the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, after the conditional government met and a referendum was held, with a theocratic constitution--the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran--approved in December of 1979, leading to the end of the monarchy and the Shah fleeing the country.
The invasion of the Iranian province of Khuzestan on September 22, 1980 marked the onset of the Iraq-Iran War. Saddam Hussein’s army made several attacks on the country, but the Irani military forces successfully managed to push the Iraqi Army back to their home country. In 1982, the Iranian regime attacked Iraqi territory in an attempt to conquer major cities like Basra. The war lasted through 1988 when Iraqi forces defeated Iran, pushing their remaining troops back to their home-borders. Khomeini went onto accept a truce which was drafted by the United Nations.
The government in Iran is headed by the Supreme Leader, who is responsible for delineation of policies in the country. The elected President has little power in government operations. The Supreme Leader outlines how elections are run in the country, and makes final decisions on the environment, economy, education, foreign policy, and nearly everything else in the country. Prior to being appointed, the President must also gain approval by the Supreme Leader.
Iran’s government central goal is to establish a new world order which is based on justice, world peace, and global collective security. The country maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, but not the US. The country is a member of G15, IBRD, G24, G77, IDA, IDB, and several other international organizations.
The Iranian legal system was dramatically altered in the Islamic revolution of 1979. Elements of civil law remain, however, the system is largely based on Islamic, or Sharia, law. The constitution stipulates that the judiciary is independent, but the entire legal system is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. The Head of the Judiciary is appointed by the Supreme Leader for a term of five years; it is this person’s job to organize the judiciary and oversee justices.
The Iranian court structure includes Revolutionary Courts, Public Courts, Courts of Peace and Supreme Courts of Cassation. There are 70 branches of the Revolutionary Courts. Public courts consist of Civil (205), Special Civil (99), First class criminal (86) and Second Class Criminal (156). Courts of Peace are divided into Ordinary courts (124), and Independent Courts of Peace (125), and Supreme Courts of Cassation (22). The courts run as an inquisitorial system, rather than adversarial, with the judge listening to both sides and pronouncing judgments, sometimes with help from other justices in serious cases.
The National Law Review covers news and business stories from Iran. From government imposed sanctions on the US and foreign government entities to the country’s major impact on the world’s oil and gas consumption, and policies on nuclear and non-nuclear designations in the country. Visitors can read about election news, government relations, and how Iran impacts the international realm, in oil, energy, nuclear, and other sectors.