October 31, 2014

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DOJ Assistant Attorney General William Baer’s First Merger Challenge Confirms Continued Aggressive Merger Enforcement by Antitrust Division

On January 31, 2013, the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) filed its first lawsuit challenging a merger under newly sworn-in Assistant Attorney General, William J. Baer. Both the facts and circumstances surrounding the suit confirm that the Antitrust Division under Baer’s leadership will maintain its aggressive merger enforcement program.

The DOJ challenged Anheuser-Busch Inbev’s (“ABI”) $20.1 billon proposed acquisition of competitor Grupo Modelo (“Modelo”), claiming that it would lessen competition in the market for beer in the United States as a whole as well as in 26 metropolitan areas, resulting in increased beer prices and decreased options. ABI and Modelo, respectively the largest and third largest beer firms, together control about 46 percent of U.S. sales. MillerCoors, the second largest beer firm, accounts for approximately 29 percent of nationwide sales. Last year, beer accounted for $80 billion of consumer spending.

The gravamen of the DOJ’s challenge was that Modelo was the most aggressive pricer among the three big brewers, and that internal documents acknowledge Modelo acted as a restraint on ABI’s ability to raise prices. In its complaint, the DOJ alleged that while ABI has instituted an annual price increase, typically followed by MillerCoors and others, Modelo has maintained its aggressive pricing strategy which even ABI admits pressures ABI to refrain from increasing its prices. The DOJ further alleged that ABI instituted its increases as part of a conduct plan which aims to provide for the highest possibility of sustaining its price increases while maintaining its market share. Elimination of the competition from Modelo, the DOJ argued, would enable ABI to further raise its prices, enhance its market share, and facilitate coordinated pricing with the remaining producers. According to the DOJ, because of the market’s size and concentration, even a small increase in the price of beer could result in billions of dollars of harm to U.S. consumers.

The DOJ also asserted that absent the acquisition, consumers would see more innovation and choice as a result of ABI’s efforts to compete with Modelo. Specifically, ABI had allegedly been targeting its efforts to compete with Modelo’s Corona, which it perceived as a significant threat, by creating new and redesigned products. Absent this competitive threat, claimed the DOJ, ABI would abandon its innovative efforts and consumers will see higher prices and less innovation.

The run-up to the filing of the litigation also provides additional insight into the DOJ’s current aggressive merger stance. Perhaps incented by the $650 million break-up fee in the transaction, ABI apparently had unsuccessfully offered to enter into a consent decree by selling a portion of Modelo’s interests and instituting a corresponding temporary supply agreement. Mr. Baer noted that the remedy did not go far enough for the DOJ, as ABI would be able to end the deal after 10 years and would not divest any of Modelo’s brands or bottling facilities. According to press accounts, the parties were in negotiations through the evening of January 30, when the DOJ walked away and filed suit the next day.

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About this Author

Bruce Sokler, Antitrust, Attorney, Mintz Levin, Law firm
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Bruce is Chair of the Antitrust Section and in his over 30 years in private practice, he has developed extensive experience in both antitrust and communications regulation, including associated First Amendment and copyright law matters

In the antitrust area, Bruce’s practice includes antitrust counseling and representation in connection with federal and state governmental matters, as well as private antitrust litigation. He counsels and has represented Fortune 100 companies, not-for-profits, start-up entities, and domestic and international joint ventures. Bruce has been...

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Robert Kidwell, Regulatory, Attorney, Mintz Levin, Law Firm
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Rob provides counseling on a range of regulatory issues at the federal and state level, including antitrust and unfair/deceptive trade practice issues, as well as representing clients in litigation.

Rob represents clients in complex litigation, class action and otherwise, under both state and federal competition laws, the Communications Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act. He also assists clients in avoiding litigation by guiding them through the transaction review process before the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission and through various proceedings...

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Christi J. Braun, Antitrust Attorney, Mintz LevinFirm
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Christi focuses on litigation of antitrust and commercial matters and counseling clients on issues involving antitrust compliance, mergers and acquisitions, and joint ventures.

Capitalizing on her education and experience, Christi specializes in working with health care clients, including hospitals, doctors, provider organizations, pharmaceutical vendors, trade associations, and insurers. Her experience includes guiding clients through physician-hospital joint ventures, hospital acquisitions of physician practices, and physician practice mergers as well as helping physicians and...

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Farrah Short, Regulatory, Antitrust, Attorney, Mintz Levin, Law Firm
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Farrah provides counseling on a wide range of federal regulatory issues, with a focus on antitrust compliance and litigation matters. She also participates actively in the firm’s pro bono program.

Farrah specializes in guiding clients through the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) premerger review process before the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice, including responding to Second Requests. She also counsels clients on competition law issues under the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, and the FTC Act and provides related advice on mergers and acquisitions,...

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Helen Kim, Antitrust, Litigation, Attorney, Mintz Levin, Law Firm
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Helen practices on a wide range of federal regulatory issues, with a focus on antitrust and litigation matters. In her antitrust practice, she counsels clients on transactional matters, such as mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, and issues related to compliance with the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act. She also advises clients on competition law issues under the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, and the FTC Act. In addition, Helen represents clients in antitrust litigation matters, including private class actions and federal and state investigations into prospective and post-...

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Shoshana Spieser, federal, regulatory, attorney, Mintz Levin, Law Firm
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Shoshana provides counseling* on a wide range of federal regulatory issues, with a focus on antitrust compliance and litigation. She also serves as legal counsel to the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. 

Prior to joining Mintz Levin, Shoshana served as a legal fellow for the Northeast Region of the Federal Trade Commission. There, she conducted investigations on market concentrations and deceptive advertising practices, drafted discovery requests, and researched and wrote memoranda.  Shoshana also previously interned for the US Attorney's Office for the...

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