Known as the Republic of Bangladesh, this Southeast-Asian country shares its land borders with India and Myanmar, and is close to Nepal, China, and Bhutan. The country has over 165 million residents, and is the largest and easternmost portion of Bengal region. The Bengali Muslim is the majority political party, making it the world’s third largest Muslim-majority country. The country was recognized as a sovereign in 1972 by the United Nations, after the Liberation Wars ended in December 1971.
The country’s political system is an established unitary, Westminster-style parliamentary, with universal suffrage laid out by the Constitution. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and cabinet. A 350-member parliament governs the country; 300 members are voted in on a ballot election, and 50-seats are set aside for female nominees by the political parties. The President of Bangladesh is considered Head of State. Since 1990, the Constitution’s Twelfth Amendment has greatly limited the President’s power and control over the country’s executive powers.
The country’s legal system is based on common law and the Parliament serves as the main source of laws. The Bangladesh Code is a list-form of all laws which govern the country. The country’s divorce, inheritance, and marriage laws are governed by Islamic, Hindu, and Christian family law. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country, and is headed by the Chief Justice of Bangladesh. Courts are given wide latitude in judicial review, and precedent is supported under Article 111 of the country’s Constitution.
Bangladesh’s military followed its framework after that of the British Army and British Indian Army. Defense is the military’s main priority, however it also aids in disaster relief and providing internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh has been the largest contributor to the UN’s peacekeeping forces for several years. Bangladesh first joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972, and has since increased its membership in foreign relationships worldwide. It joined the United Nations in 1974, the country is also a member of SAARC, the OIC, and maintains foreign relationships with countries around the world including the US, UK, and Japan, among others.
The country is a mixed-market based economy. The country has the third-largest Asian economy (after Pakistan and India), and after India has the highest foreign-exchange reserves. Several industries including pharmaceutical, energy, steel, ceramics, chemical, construction materials, and leather goods, contribute to the country’s economy. The country’s export industry is most highly influenced by the garment manufacturing industry. Agriculture is the country’s largest sector, given the rich soil in regions like the Ganges Delta.
Visas and immigration from the country to the US, international affairs, and relations with Asian countries, and other foreign affairs, are some of the stories and news coverage visitors to the National Law Review will find in relation to the country. Visitors will find the most up to date coverage, and updated stories, as they relate to the country of Bangladesh, its neighboring regions, and world affairs on the National Law Review.