Located in the Northern part of North America, Canada sits directly on top of the United States. In addition to sharing borders, the United States and Canada are among the largest countries in the world, Canada being the second-largest country by area. And, the land border which is shared with the US, makes it the world’s longest bi-national land border.
Canada was established in 1535 by France and was originally known as the colony of Canada. Today Canada is governed by a Federal-parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth as the head of state. At the federal level, it is a bilingual nation, speaking English and French; Canada is one of the most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations in the world, which is primarily the result of large-scale immigration.
Canada has an advanced economy, making it the tenth-largest in the world, based on GDP (in the Human Development Index). It is abundant in natural resources, and relies heavily on a well-developed international trade market. Canada also ranks highly in international measurements for categories including: government transparency, economic freedom, civil liberties, quality of life, education, and healthcare. Canada is a member of the United Nations, G20, G7, NAFTA, Group of Ten, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum.
Canada is governed by the Constitution of Canada, making it the supreme law of the country. Written text and unwritten conventions govern the Constitution. The Constitution Act of 1982 ended all legislative ties with the UK, while adding an amending formula for the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court, and the Judiciary plays an integral role in interpreting powers; the Judiciary also has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament if they violate the Constitution. Common law prevails in all provinces except Quebec, which is regulated by the civil law system.
Canada is a powerful country in terms of its economy, with a GDP of $1.52 trillion US (2016). It is rated as one of the top ten trading nations in the world. The country ranks above the US and many western European countries in the Heritage Foundation Index, and the country experiences extremely low levels of income disparity. The economy is also heavily driven by stock exchange, as the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest market in the world.
Canada’s economy is highly driven by import and export, and trade with countries including the US, China, and the European Union. Since the 20th century, the country has also experienced growth in mining, manufacturing, and the services sector. The service industry drives the Canadian economy, employing about ¾ of the country’s workforce. Petroleum and forestry are two of the country’s most prominent areas of expertise, driving a great deal of income in these sectors.
The National Law Review covers the latest news, stories, and information regarding Canada, and its provinces. Litigation, employment law changes in the country, new legislation, immigration law, patent application stories, and Canada’s bioeconomy, are among the different stories covered on the National Law Review. Visitors will find up to date stories, news, and cases from Canada regularly on the site.