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App Privacy Claims Based on Federal Wiretap Act Survive Motion to Dismiss

In a closely watched case under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18 U.S.C. §2510, et seq. (the “Wiretap Act”), a California district court has held that the plaintiff rectified the shortcomings in her original complaint, and that her claims can now proceed against both the provider of a smartphone application (Signal 360, Inc. f/k/a Sonic Notify, Inc.) and the NBA franchise on whose behalf the application was developed (Golden State Warriors, LLC), but not the app developer (Yinzcam). See Satchell v. Sonic Notify Inc., 16-cv-04961 (N.D. Cal.).

According to the plaintiff, the Warriors organization offers an app that delivers scores, news and other information to fans. The app delivers content based in part on a user’s physical location, which is allegedly determined through the use of Signal360’s audio beacon technology, which uses radio beacons to emit a unique audio signal that the app captures. But in order for the app to capture that signal, a user’s smartphone microphone must be on. The crux of the plaintiff’s original complaint was that the app turned the microphone on without her knowledge during private conversations and recorded those conversations in violation of the Wiretap Act, which provides a cause of action “to any person whose wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted, disclosed, or intentionally used,” absent a statutory exception (e.g., the consent of the parties).

In its decision dismissing the original complaint without prejudice, the court explained that the complaint fell short for three reasons: (1) while she had adequately alleged that Signal 360 “intercepted” a communication, she could not rely on a theory of “concerted action” to take the place of allegations specific to the other defendants; (2) she failed to allege that any of the defendants intercepted any “oral communication” because her allegations that the app intercepted “private conversations” were mere legal conclusions; and (3) she failed to allege that any of the defendants “used” any oral communication because those allegations, too, were mere legal conclusions.

In reviewing the plaintiff’s second effort, the court held that the amended complaint sufficiently alleged that Signal360 intercepted oral communications within the meaning of the Wiretap Act by citing four specific instances when the plaintiff’s private conversations were purportedly recorded through her smartphone’s microphone: conversations between plaintiff and her spouse, discussions at a business meeting, conversations with a loan officer, and conversations with a banker. The court also held that the amended complaint sufficiently alleged a claim against the Warriors based on plaintiff’s additional allegations that the Warriors “had access to information generated” by the app. The court, however, again rejected the “concerted action” theory of liability, noting that it “respectfully disagree[d]” with the reasoning in Rackemann v. LISNR, Inc., No. 17-cv-00624-TWP-MJD, 2017 WL 4340349 (S.D. Ind. Sept. 29, 2017)—a similar case involving the Indianapolis Colts.

With regard to Yinzcam, the court dismissed the plaintiff’s claims, finding plaintiff’s allegations that Yinzcam integrated Signal360’s source code into the app and tested the app did not sufficiently allege that Yinzcam had either intercepted an oral communication or “procured” an interception. In so ruling, the court again distinguished the holding in Rackemann, stating that in that case, the complaint included more details about how the app functioned and alleged that the developer provided the rules that dictated when the microphone would be activated.

Surviving a motion to dismiss does not mean that the allegations are true, and it remains to be seen whether the allegations can survive summary judgment. The Warriors certainly do not think so—they have described the allegations as “purely fanciful and wholly without merit.” That will now be tested in discovery. In the meantime, however, this decision and the decision in Rackemann provide a roadmap for plaintiffs and their counsel to plead enough to withstand a motion to dismiss and proceed into discovery. The prospect of a plaintiff poking around in one’s technology in discovery, along with the Wiretap Act’s draconian damages ($10,000 in statutory damages per violation), should give businesses pause when considering implementing technology that uses smartphone microphones.


©2017 Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP. All Rights Reserved


About this Author

Justin O. Kay Attorney, Complex Commercial Litigator, Drinker Biddle Law Firm

Justin O. Kay is a partner in the firm’s Commercial Litigation Practice Group. His practice focuses on complex civil matters in federal and state court and before federal agencies.

Justin’s securities litigation practice focuses on defending corporations and individuals in cases involving the federal securities laws and state corporate governance statutes.  His experience includes defending claims involving Rule 10b-5 and Control Person Liability, and tender offer and shareholder derivative litigation.  Justin also represents...

Michael J. Stortz, Commercial Litigation Lawyer, Drinker Biddle

Michael Stortz is a partner in the firm’s Litigation Group and Communication Litigation Practice Group.  He has successfully defended companies against claims of unfair competition, false advertising, consumer fraud, breach of warranty, and product defect.  

Michael’s practice includes the defense of nationwide and regional litigation, including multidistrict and putative class action litigation, and on appeals arising out of such litigation.  He has tried such claims to successful conclusion in federal and state courts, as well as arbitrated such claims in venues across the country.

Brendan P. McHugh, Drinker Biddle, Litigation, trial preparation lawyer, legal research attorney

Brendan P. McHugh works with clients at various stages of legal proceedings and trial preparation, including legal research, writing motions, and other legal memorandums. Before joining the firm, Brendan was a competitive swimmer at the international level representing the United States as a multiple-time member of the National Team. He was an All-American at the University of Pennsylvania, a 2014 National Champion, and currently holds the U.S. Open Record in the 50 meter breaststroke.