Sanctions for Failing to Investigate Insurance under Federal Rule 26
In two recent cases, lawyers have been sanctioned for failing to understand their client’s insurance program. These cases (along with others from the past) illustrate that courts are increasingly placing a burden on defense lawyers to have a basic understanding of insurance and to thoroughly discuss insurance matters with their clients.
North Carolina attorney sanctioned for failing to disclose umbrella policy
Last December, the United States District Court for the Western District of North Carolina sanctioned an insurance defense lawyer with a $1,000 sanction because the Court found that she failed to properly discuss and review the applicable insurance her client had for a claim. Further inquiry would have revealed a $10 million umbrella policy above the first $1 million layer of commercial general liability insurance. Palacino v. Beech Mountain Resort, Inc., 2015 WL 8731779 (W.D.N.C., Dec. 11, 2015).
Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26(a)(1)(A)(iv), a defendant must disclose, relatively early in a case, “any insurance agreement under which an insurance business may be liable to satisfy all or part of a possible judgment in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment.” In this case, the umbrella policy was only disclosed after mediation and after discovery closed. The Court concluded that this was a violation of Rule 26, as “Defendant was legally obligated to disclose both [insurance] policies in its Initial Disclosures, and its failure to do so violated its obligations under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and the Court’s Pretrial Order.”
By only disclosing the first $1 million in coverage under the CGL policy – presumably the policy which the attorney was retained under – the attorney neglected to investigate the full range of available insurance and to disclose the $10 million umbrella. The attorney submitted an affidavit stating that, in responding to Rule 26, the Risk Manager for the defendant was asked to provide all applicable insurance policies. However, the Court ruled that this was not enough. It noted that the attorney's affidavit in opposition to sanctions did not state that the attorney "independently verified the completeness of the information provided" or that "additional steps [were taken] to ensure that the information" provided in the Initial Disclosures was complete "or that a reasonably inquiry was made prior to providing the Initial Disclosures." The Court goes on to state that the attorney should have been able to "represent to the Court that she undertook [an] independent inquiry to verify whether the information provided by [the Risk Manager] was complete prior to signing the" Initial Disclosures. However, the Court gave no guidance as to how a retained defense attorney is to show that “a reasonable inquiry [into insurance policies] was made prior to providing the Initial Disclosures” other than asking the Risk Manager – presumably the most knowledgeable employee of the defendant – to provide all insurance policies. Does this require asking other employees of the client? Reaching out to the client's insurance broker? Physically inspecting the client's files?
In addition to the $1,000 sanction against the attorney, the client was also fined $500 for its failure to uncover and disclose the umbrella policy.
Tenth Circuit affirms sanction for failing to disclose D&O policy
In Sun River Energy, Inc. v. Nelson, 800 F.3d 1219 (10th Cir. 2015), decided last September, the Tenth Circuit affirmed an award of sanctions against counsel for failing to disclose the company’s directors and officers (D&O) insurance policy in its initial disclosures.
In that case, the Plaintiff had a "Directors and Officers Liability Insurance Policy including Employment Practices and Securities Claims Coverage" which arguably provided coverage for certain counterclaims which the Defendant may have made. However, by the time the policy was disclosed, any potential coverage under that “claims made” policy had lapsed.
The federal magistrate judge, in issuing the underlying sanction, wrote that counsel never “took a serious look at whether there was applicable insurance” and “exhibited deliberate indifference to the obligation of providing relevant insurance information under Rule 26.”
Importantly to defense counsel, the Tenth Circuit flatly rejected the attorney’s excuse that “counsel need not bother to review the actual terms of an insurance policy . . . before denying the existence of the potential coverage, so long as he believes the existence of coverage would be very unlikely or unusual.” Instead, defense counsel is obligated to review all applicable policies and then provide the information required by Rule 26 when completing Initial Disclosures. Implicit in the Tenth Circuit’s ruling is that the lawyer must have a basic understanding of insurance law and whether certain policies may provide coverage for the claims at issue.
Finally, no discussion of defense counsel’s potential insurance obligations is complete without reference to Shaya B. Pacific, LLC v. Wilson, Elser, Moskowitz, Edelman & Dicker, 827 N.Y.S.2d, 231 (N.Y. Sup. App. Div. 2006). In that New York case, the court held that an attorney could be liable for negligence/malpractice for failing to investigate his client’s insurance coverage for a claim or failing to notify the insurer of a claim. However, the determination of negligence would also turn on “the scope of the agreed representation.” Clarifying the scope of representation - by excluding any obligation to consult on insurance coverage - is thus important to attorneys who do not feel comfortable opining on insurance matters.