Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, abbreviated as PFAS, are a class of widely dispersed chemicals quickly gaining notoriety in the public health and environmental remediation space. In 2019, rapid developments toward regulation to govern the investigation and cleanup of PFAS contamination to protect human health are occurring in a wide variety of arenas, including federal regulation and congressional action as well as at the state level through both regulation and enacted legislation. This article examines the current state of regulatory developments for PFAS and projects where things are heading in the remainder of 2019, with particular focus on how those developments will incentivize and accelerate the pace of site cleanups and cost recovery, and pose significant challenges to existing sites where other contaminants are already being addressed.
What are PFAS?
PFAS are a class of more than 4,000 synthetic chemicals comprised of carbon-fluorine chains of varying lengths. PFAS have been in use since the late 1940s, due to their unique resistant physical and chemical properties. For example, PFAS have been used in non-stick applications such as cookware, paper packaging, and textiles, as well as in certain types of firefighting foam. The two most widely studied PFAS are perfluorooctane sulfonate or PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid or PFOA.
Over the past decade, understanding of PFAS and their potential toxicity to humans and the environment has increased. Of particular concern is their stability in the environment. The properties that made PFAS so desirable for commercial and industrial use keep these compounds from degrading in the environment and allow them to pose a long-term threat if not removed from the environment and/or from drinking water supplies. Common exposure to these compounds can come through their product use as well as drinking from contaminated water supplies impacted by their release. Also notable are the very low levels at which these compounds exhibit their toxicity, and the very stringent levels under consideration by the regulatory agencies for controlling these compounds. For example, EPA has set interim screening levels of 70 nanograms per liter (parts per trillion or ppt), and several states have proposed guidance levels of 15 ppt or less. For context, 15 ppt is equivalent to a few droplets in an Olympic-sized swimming pool.
Federal Regulatory Developments
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) authorizes cleanup at sites where hazardous substances have been released, and enables parties conducting cleanups to seek cost recovery from other potentially responsible parties. The ability to potentially recover costs under CERCLA can be an important driver in encouraging impacted parties to investigate and remediate contaminated sites. However, as an emerging contaminant class, PFAS are not currently regulated as hazardous substances under CERCLA.
In February 2019, EPA issued an Action Plan outlining its steps to address PFAS and protect public health. Among its listed priority actions was to propose a national drinking water regulatory determination for the two most widely studied PFAS, PFOA and PFOS, by the end of 2019. This proposed determination would begin the process towards establishment of a maximum contaminant level, or MCL, for these compounds. Another priority action was to initiate the process to list PFOA and PFOS as CERCLA hazardous substances; in April of 2019 at a meeting of state regulators, EPA committed to proposing this hazardous substance designation by the end of 2019. Such a designation will have a multitude of impacts, including 1) PFOA and/or PFOS-contaminated sites will be eligible for listing as Superfund sites; 2) Federal and State authorities will have mechanisms through which they can seek damages or cleanup costs from responsible parties; and 3) Superfund monies will be eligible for use in cleaning up sites contaminated with PFOA and/or PFOS.
This commitment to regulate PFOA and PFOS under CERCLA was reaffirmed in a keynote speech of EPA’s General Counsel on September 12th at the American Bar Association, Section Environment, Energy, and Resources Fall Conference in Boston, Massachusetts. In his speech, the Honorable Matthew Leopold indicated that EPA was actively looking at designating PFOA and PFOS as CERCLA hazardous substances by year’s end. This would represent one of the few times in which new contaminants such as these were regulated under CERCLA.
Concurrent with these EPA actions, congressional legislators have called for increased and expedited federal action to regulate PFOA and PFOS, and in some cases the entire PFAS class of 4000 plus chemicals. There have been several bills proposed in 2019 which would commit EPA to taking expedited action with regards to PFAS, including listing some or all PFAS as hazardous substances, and establishing federal MCLs. Perhaps most notably are two bills regarding appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2020 National Defense Authorization Act. S.1790 (passed by the Senate on June 27, 2019) would require EPA to promulgate drinking water MCLs for PFOA and PFOS within two years of enactment, and H.R.2500 (passed by the House on July 12, 2019) would require EPA to designate all PFAS as hazardous substances within one year of enactment.
State officials have also actively petitioned for more expedited federal action on PFAS. On July 30, 2019, 22 state and territory attorneys general issued a letter to Congress requesting that certain PFAS be designated hazardous substances, in particular, PFOA, PFOS, and a PFOA-replacement chemical known as GenX. In their letter, the attorneys general specifically note that such a designation would promote cleanup efforts, including federal facilities formerly owned or operated by the US Department of Defense.
Based on these developments from multiple agencies and levels of government, it appears likely that in the relatively short term PFOA and PFOS will be designated as hazardous substances under CERCLA. This in turn will open the door for CERCLA regulation of PFAS-contaminated sites. Once designated, the next question will be one of appropriate cleanup levels. Typically, EPA would take the lead with establishment of MCLs that can be used to develop risk-based cleanup levels, and from which states could either adopt or modify. However, the process for proposing and finalizing a federal MCL can take years. Thus, faced with increasing public pressure to respond to PFAS contamination, the states have stepped in to fill this gap.
State Regulatory Developments
In November 2018, New Jersey became the first state to issue an MCL for any individual PFAS, specifically for the chemical perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). For PFOA and PFOS, there are currently no state MCLs that have been finalized. However, many states have established PFOA and PFOS advisory or screening levels, and several states have begun the MCL rule-making process, with some anticipating finalization this year.
In 2019, three states have proposed MCLs of varying concentrations for PFOA and PFOS:
In April, New Jersey proposed an MCL of 14 ppt for PFOA and 13 ppt for PFOS; the public comment period has since closed, and the standard is in the process of finalization;
In June, New Hampshire proposed an MCL of 12 ppt for PFOA and 15 ppt for PFOS (they also proposed MCLs for two other PFAS chemicals); those MCLs were approved on July 18, and will become effective on October 1; and
In July, New York proposed an MCL of 10 ppt for PFOA and PFOS making them the most protective standards in the nation; the proposal is currently out for public comment, which closes on September 24.
In addition, several other states have provided commitments to establishing MCLs in the near future. These include Massachusetts with an MCL rule proposal anticipated by the end of 2019; Michigan with an MCL rule proposal expected by October with finalization in 2020; and Vermont with a commitment to establishing and adopting MCLs by February 1, 2020. Other states are also moving forward with efforts to regulate PFAS. For example, in August 2019 California established notification levels for PFOS and PFOA in drinking water of 6.5 ppt and 5.1 ppt, respectively, that go into effect January 1, 2020. ,
With federal and state regulatory action underway, and mounting public pressure to expedite a response, it is clear that regulation of some PFAS under CERCLA is imminent. By the end of the year, it is likely that 1) EPA will have designated, or be close to designating, PFOA and PFOS as hazardous substances; and 2) several states will have finalized MCLs to regulate their remedial response. These two developments will open the door for parties to investigate, cleanup, and ultimately recover the costs associated with PFAS-contaminated sites. In addition, these developments will likely complicate existing sites in terms of both their required remedial response as well as their cost recovery strategy. New PFAS regulation at existing sites will unlock a myriad of cost implications not the least of which involve cost allocation among potentially responsible parties. In the face of these complications and uncertainties, what is clear is that PFAS regulation has rolled off the horizon and directly in front of those involved with protecting public health and the environment.
The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the firm or its clients. This article is for general information purposes and is not intended to be and should not be taken as legal or accounting advice.
 For a more thorough background on the history and usage of PFAS, see the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council fact sheets at https://pfas-1.itrcweb.org/
 New Jersey regulated PFNA largely in response to a regional issue relating to specific historic discharges from a chemical manufacturing facility.
At the American Bar Association, Section Environment, Energy, and Resources Fall Conference in Boston, Massachusetts, the Commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection participated in a panel discussion titled “The State of CERCLA Following EPA Reform: More of the Same or Something Super?” In this discussion, Mr. Suuberg indicated that Massachusetts will finalize its PFAS standards by the end of the year, and in an accompanying paper noted that the comment period on the proposed cleanup standard of 20 ppt (for a sum of six PFAS) had closed in July and was currently under review.
 California already had notification levels of 14 ppt for PFOA and 13 ppt for PFOS and will continue to have a response level for those drinking water systems exceeding 70 ppt for the total combined concentration of both compounds, consistent with EPA’s advisory level.