November 15, 2018

November 15, 2018

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

November 14, 2018

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

November 13, 2018

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

Reassignment: The Often-Overlooked Accommodation of Last Resort

What happens when, at the end of a good faith interactive dialogue and despite the parties’ best efforts, there is apparently no reasonable accommodation that will enable the employee to perform the essential functions of their job? Can the employer safely terminate, resting assured it has done all it can and that such an employee is not a “qualified individual” under the ADA? Not if the employer has at least 15 employees. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) expressly identifies reassignment as an accommodation that will be reasonable in some circumstances. Employers who view the reasonable accommodation process as limited to the employee’s own job are at significant risk of disability discrimination claims.

When must an employer consider reassignment?

Reassignment is considered an accommodation “of last resort,” meaning that there is no obligation to consider reassignment to another position until it is determined that the employee cannot be accommodated in their own position.

What are the limits of an employer’s obligation to reassign a disabled employee?

The law is clear that an employer need not create a position in order to make reassignment possible; nor is an employer required to bump an employee from a position in order to create a vacancy. The reassignment accommodation is limited to existing jobs that are currently vacant, or that the employer knows will become vacant in near future. Employers do not need to consider positions for which the employee is unqualified. Moreover, if the only available and suitable position constitutes a demotion or pays less than the employee is earning in their current job, the employer may nonetheless reassign the employee to that position, reducing the employee’s rank or compensation as appropriate for the new position.

Does reassignment simply mean allowing the employee to compete for a vacant position, or must an employer prefer a minimally qualified disabled candidate over other, more qualified, candidates?

The answer to this question is unsettled, and varies by jurisdiction. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has long taken the position that a disabled employee unable to perform their own job and minimally qualified for a vacant position must be placed in the vacant position, without being required to compete for it, even if there are other more qualified applicants for the job and even if the employer has a best-qualified applicant policy.

Several United States Circuit Courts of Appeal (e.g. 7th, 10th, and D.C.) have effectively agreed with the EEOC, either expressly requiring preferential treatment for the disabled individual requiring reassignment or holding that, to be meaningful, reassignment as a reasonable accommodation must require more than the mere opportunity to apply and compete for a position. Others, however, (e.g. 5th, 6th, 8th, and 11th) have held that the ADA does not require “affirmative action.” The 1st Circuit Court of Appeals has not yet been called upon to confront the issue directly, but a statement in a relatively recent 1st Circuit decision has led many to speculate that, when forced to decide the question, it will hold that preferential reassignment is required. Audette v. Town of Plymouth, 858 F.3d 13, n. 10 (1st Cir. 2017).

Although the United States Supreme Court has not weighed in on this precise question, it has held that an employer was not required to reassign a disabled employee to a vacant position when another employee was entitled to the position under an established seniority system. U.S. Airways, Inc. v. Barnett, 535 U.S. 391 (2002). Whether the Court would find that a best-qualified applicant policy is akin to a seniority system is an open question, and the answer could depend, at least in part, on whether the best-qualified applicant policy is well-established, reduced to writing, and consistently followed by the employer, as the seniority system was in Barnett.

While different jurisdictions have defined the scope of the reassignment accommodation differently, one thing is clear: the ADA expressly contemplates that reassignment may be a reasonable accommodation. Thus, when the interactive dialogue fails to identify an effective accommodation that would keep the employee in their current job, the employer must consider whether there are other vacant positions the employee can perform, with or without reasonable accommodation.

©2018 Pierce Atwood LLP. All rights reserved.

TRENDING LEGAL ANALYSIS


About this Author

Katherine Rand, Pierce Atwood, Employment lawyer
Partner

Having worked in human resources and management in the private sector, Katy Rand brings hands-on experience to her practice.  Her client work primarily involves employment law, with a focus on discrimination, harassment, retaliation, and wage / hour issues.   Katy helps employers avoid litigation, counseling them on compliance and employee relations issues and, where appropriate, negotiating early resolution of disputes.  She also has an active litigation practice, routinely advocating on behalf of employers in state and federal court, as well as before administrative agencies such as the ...

(207) 791-1267
Soyoung Yoon, Pierce Atwood, employment lawyer
Counsel

Soyoung Yoon is a highly experienced employment and education lawyer, and advises employers and educational institutions (including small businesses, large organizations, independent schools, colleges, and universities) regarding employment and education laws.

She focuses her employment practice on counseling clients on federal and state labor and employment laws, employee handbooks, criminal background checks, background checks under the FCRA, drug testing, employee classification under the FLSA, wage and hour compliance, FMLA compliance, leaves of absence, accommodations under the ADA, hiring, employment applications, offer letters, employment agreements, pay equity audits, employee performance, employment terminations, severance agreements, acceptable use of technology, social media, and workplace monitoring and privacy issues. 

Soyoung advises educational institutions on a range of education law issues including admissions applications, enrollment agreements, acceptable use of technology agreements, social media policies, medication administration policies, trip compliance, homestay compliance, crisis management plans, student records and privacy, data security compliance, and religious exemption.  She also assists colleges and universities with policies and procedures affecting students and employees, including student complaint procedures and Title IX compliance.

(617) 488-8129