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Eleventh Circuit Strikes the ACA's Individual Mandate as Unconstitutional, Setting Up a Circuit Split and Making Supreme Court Review More Likely

In a 2-1 decision on August 12, 2011, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta ruled that the individual mandate in the Affordable Care Act (the ACA) is unconstitutional. (See opinion.) In a reversal from the original federal district court decision on appeal, however, the circuit court found that the individual mandate was severable from the remainder of the ACA, and therefore concluded that the remaining parts of the ACA should stand.

By contrast, in the original district court opinion, Judge Roger Vinson, after noting that the individual mandate had been referred to as the “linchpin” of the ACA by the President and others, found that the whole of the ACA was not severable from the individual mandate, and that since the individual mandate was unconstitutional the entire ACA must be struck down.

While the Eleventh Circuit found that the “district court placed undue emphasis on the [ACA’s] lack of a severability clause,” it did acknowledge the closeness of the severability question, particularly with regard to two reforms under the ACA: guaranteed issue health insurance, 42 U.S.C. § 300gg-1 (effective January 1, 2014) and the prohibition on preexisting condition exclusions, id. § 300gg-3.

The Eleventh Circuit Court’s opinion is of significant interest to stakeholders for a variety of reasons. Importantly, this decision sets up a circuit split (the 6th Circuit in Atlanta previously upheld the constitutionality of the individual mandate in a 2-1 decision), which means that Supreme Court review is virtually inevitable. Further, this decision marks the first time that a judge appointed by a democrat ruled against the Obama Administration on the constitutionality of any aspect of the ACA. In addition, the Eleventh Circuit case has been regarded as perhaps the most significant legal challenge to the ACA, in part because the challengers include 26 states, as well as the National Federation of Independent Business. In related ACA legal action, the Fourth Circuit has yet to rule in two other pending challenges.

The Obama Administration has 90 days from August 12, 2011, to decide if it wishes to request an en banc re-hearing before the full Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals or instead appeal the decision directly to the Supreme Court. The Administration’s decision will likely involve legal and political considerations. In an en banc re-hearing, there is a potential legal risk that the full Eleventh Circuit could affirm the unconstitutionality of the individual mandate, but reverse the panel on the severability issue. Alternatively, if the case moves more swiftly to the Supreme Court and the Court agrees to take up the ACA challenge in the term that begins in October 2011, then a decision would be expected no later than June 2012, a scant five months before the presidential election. From a political perspective, an en banc re-hearing could delay a final Supreme Court decision on health care reform until after the November 2012 election. However, even if requested by the Administration, an en banc re-hearing is not guaranteed because en banc re-hearings are disfavored under federal court rules and the Eleventh Circuit could only order an en banc re-hearing if a majority of all the eligible Eleventh Circuit Judges agree to hear it. 

Meanwhile, President Obama has expressed confidence that the ACA will be upheld and the Administration is continuing to press ahead with implementation of its provisions.

© 2022 McDermott Will & EmeryNational Law Review, Volume I, Number 235
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