June 18, 2019

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June 17, 2019

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Top Five Labor Law Developments for January 2019

  1. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) reinstated its pre-2014 standard for determining whether an individual is an independent contractor or an employee. SuperShuttle DFW, Inc., 367 NLRB No. 75 (Jan. 25, 2019). The NLRB determined that the employer’s shuttle van drivers were not employees, but independent contractors. Thus, they were not covered by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and therefore, they were not eligible to unionize. In making its determination, the Board overruled FedEx Home Delivery, 361 NLRB 610 (2014), and reinstated its prior and long-standing test for determining employee status. The reinstated test places a greater emphasis on an individual’s level of “entrepreneurial opportunity,” whereas the overruled standard limited the significance of entrepreneurial opportunity.
  2. The NLRB narrowed the circumstances under which it considers an individual employee’s complaint to be concerted activity under the NLRA. Alstate Maintenance, LLC, 367 NLRB No. 68 (Jan. 11, 2019). Reversing precedent that created a presumption that remarks made by an employee in a group setting in the presence of a supervisor were concerted activity, the Board returned to the standard that whether concerted activity has occurred is a factual question based on the totality of the record evidence. The Board set out a five-factor test for determining whether a statement by an employee made in a meeting or a group setting in the presence of a supervisor is concerted. The test focuses on whether the employee was seeking to “initiate, induce, or prepare for group action.” For details, see our article, Labor Board Narrows What May Be Considered Concerted Activity.
  3. The General Counsel issued an Advice Memorandum finding an employer violated the NLRA when it fired a supervisor who voted in a Board-supervised election. TLC Health Network d/b/a Lake Shore Health, 03-CA-113937 (Mar. 19, 2014, released Jan. 14, 2019). The employer and union disputed whether the employer’s dietary supervisors were “supervisors” under the NLRA. (Supervisors are ineligible to vote in an NLRB election.) The employer terminated a dietary supervisor after she voted in the election despite the employer telling her she was a supervisor and ineligible to vote. The GC decided the termination was unlawful, because the NLRA prohibits employers from penalizing employees (including supervisors) for invoking the Board’s processes to determine, among other things, whether the NLRA applies to them. To find otherwise, the Memorandum stated, would allow employers to “impede access to the Board” and give the employer, rather than the Board, the authority to control access to the Board’s processes. (While the individual eventually was found to be a supervisor under the NLRA, that did not affect the result.)
  4. The percentage of private sector workers represented by unions fell in 2018, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department of Labor. In its “Union Members — 2018” report, the BLS found that the private sector unionization rate fell to 6.4% in 2018, from 6.5% in 2017. Among other findings, the BLS report noted that: (1) men had a higher union representation rate than women (11.1% vs. 9.9%); (2) Black workers were more likely to be union members than White, Asian, or Hispanic workers; (3) older workers were unionized at a higher rate (12.8% of workers ages 45 to 54, compared to 13.3% of those ages 55 to 64); and (4) non-union workers’ median weekly earnings were less than those of unionized employees ($860 per week versus $1,051 per week).
  5. The GC issued an Advice Memorandum finding an employer did not violate the NLRA when it enforced a non-solicitation provision in contracts with subcontractors without first bargaining with the union representing the employer’s own employees. Duke Energy Indiana, 25-CA-214176 (Dec. 17, 2018, released Jan. 14, 2019). Some of the employer’s linemen — employees constructing and maintaining power lines — worked directly for the employer, while some worked for a subcontractor on the employer’s property (for better wages and benefits). Many of the employer’s linemen ended their relationship with the employer to begin working through the subcontractor. Consequently, the employer notified its own linemen and its subcontractors that it will immediately enforce previously unenforced language in its subcontracts stating that former employees could not work for a subcontractor on its property for six months after leaving its employment. The employer did not notify the union representing the linemen before making the announcement. The GC found that, despite the fact that the employer’s decision to enforce the restriction on the subcontractor’s use of former unit employees affected the employees’ terms and conditions of employment, the employer had not violated the NLRA. The employer’s decision, the GC said, is “the type of managerial decision over which an employer does not have to bargain” and the “selection of independent contractors” and the terms in those subcontracts “fall solely within the employer’s prerogative.”
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Philip B. Rosen Jackson Lewis  Preventive Practices Lawyer & Collective Bargaining Attorney
Principal

Philip B. Rosen is a Principal in the New York City, New York, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He is a member of the firm's Board of Directors and co-leads the firm's Labor and Preventive Practices Group. He joined the firm in 1979 and served as Managing Partner of the New York City office from 1989 to 2009.

Mr. Rosen lectures extensively, conducts management training, and advises clients with respect to legislative and regulatory initiatives, corporate strategies, business ethics, social media, reorganizations and reductions-...

212-545-4000
Jonathan J. Spitz, Jackson Lewis Law Firm, Labor Employment Attorney, Atlanta
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Jonathan J. Spitz is a Principal in the Atlanta, Georgia, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He is Co-Leader of the firm’s Labor and Preventive Practices Group.

Mr. Spitz lectures extensively, conducts management training, and advises clients with respect to legislative and regulatory initiatives, corporate strategies, business ethics, social media issues and the changing regulatory landscape. He understands the practical and operational needs of corporate America, helping design pragmatic strategies to minimize risk and maximize performance. He has represented management in dozens of counter-organizing drives and participated in countless unfair labor practice proceedings, discrimination charges and other matters before the National Labor Relations Board, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and other federal and state administrative agencies, as well as in collective bargaining, arbitration and in employment litigation before state and federal courts. Mr. Spitz regularly counsels employers in employee relations and discipline and discharge matters, and also assists employers in drafting employment policies and in complying with the Family and Medical Leave Act, drug testing laws and regulations, the Americans with Disabilities Act and other federal and state employment laws.

404-586-1835
Howard Bloom, Jackson Lewis, labor union attorney, unfair practice investigations lawyer, employment legal counsel, bargaining law
Principal

Howard M. Bloom is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He has practiced labor and employment law representing exclusively employers for more than 36 years.

Mr. Bloom counsels clients in a variety of industries on labor law issues. He trains and advises executives, managers and supervisors on union awareness and positive employee relations, and assists employers in connection with union card-signing efforts, traditional union representation and corporate campaigns, and union decertification...

617-367-0025
Richard Greenberg, Jackson Lewis, workplace grievances lawyer, arbitrations litigation attorney
Principal

Richard Greenberg is a Principal in the New York City, New York, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He advises both unionized and union-free clients on a full-range of labor and employee relations matters.

With respect to traditional labor matters, Mr. Greenberg represents clients in collective bargaining negotiations, labor disputes, grievances and arbitrations, proceedings before the National Labor Relations Board, and in state and federal court. Mr. Greenberg also advises clients on the legal aspects of remaining union-free....

212-545-4080
Chad P. Richter, Jackson Lewis PC, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Attorney
Principal

Chad Richter is a Principal in the Omaha, Nebraska, office of Jackson Lewis P.C.

Mr. Richter’s practice is divided into three areas: (1) preventive counseling and training; (2) traditional labor law; and (3) workplace litigation. With regard to Mr. Richter’s preventive practice, he routinely provides day-to-day advice and counseling to management on a variety of employment law matters including human resource management, traditional labor relations, employment discrimination, wage and hour, privacy, disability leave management, and reductions in force. Mr....

402-827-4233