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Volume XI, Number 216

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August 02, 2021

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U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Investigations Recommends Regulation of the Art Market & Other Headlines

UNITED STATES

U.S. Senate Subcommittee’s Report Recommends Art Market Regulations

As part of its investigation into the effectiveness of sanctions against foreign persons and entities, the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the United States Senate issued a report focused on lack of regulation and pervasive secrecy in the art market. Specifically, the report notes that the art industry is considered the largest legal industry in the United States that is not subject to the requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act, which mandates detailed procedures aimed at preventing money laundering and requires businesses to know their customers’ identity. The report further observes that under the unwritten rules of the art market, a large number of art sales happen through intermediaries, with purchasers and sellers frequently not inquiring into each other’s identities and sellers not asking about the origin of the purchase money. Art advisers are frequently reluctant to reveal the identity of their clients for fear of losing the business.

The 147-page report sets forth a case study of how the art market was used to evade sanctions imposed on Russia. Brothers Arkady and Boris Rotenberg, billionaire business tycoons and long-time friends of Vladimir Putin, were among a number of Russians placed under U.S. sanctions in 2014 as part of an effort to punish Putin and his associates for the annexation of Crimea. It is illegal for U.S. companies to do business with sanctioned persons, but there are no specific laws in place obliging a buyer or seller in a transaction for the sale of art to identify themselves. The Subcommittee’s report concludes that the Rotenbergs took advantage of the lack of transparency required in art transactions, successfully evading the sanctions imposed on them. It is alleged that through the use of shell companies and a Moscow-based art adviser and dealer, they hid their identities and purchased more than $18 million in art from U.S. dealers and auction houses while under sanction.

Of significance to all art market participants, the Senate Subcommittee’s report recommends, among other things, that Congress should amend the Bank Secrecy Act to add businesses handling transactions involving high-value art. While the term “high-value” is not defined, the report cites the recent European Anti–Money Laundering (AML) legislation, which requires businesses handling art transactions valued at €10,000 to comply with AML laws, including the Know Your Customer rule. The report further recommends that the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury issue a comprehensive guide on the steps auction houses and art dealers should take to ensure that they are not doing business with sanctioned individuals or entities.

Legislation will be necessary to amend the Bank Secrecy Act to apply to the art market. In fact, a bill proposing to do exactly that was previously introduced and is presently pending, proposing to regulate antiques dealers only in connection with transactions over $10,000.

White Supremacist Scientist’s Skull Collection to Be Reexamined by University

Last year, a group of students at the University of Pennsylvania presented findings that a collection of skulls kept by the university include crania from at least 55 enslaved individuals. The collection was the work of Samuel George Morton, a now-discredited physician, who used the skulls to come up with pseudoscientific justifications for slavery. Discovery Magazine has touted him as the “founding father of scientific racism.” After facing calls for the skulls to be repatriated or buried, the university moved the collection to storage. Repatriation may be difficult since little is known about the skulls’ origin other than that Morton obtained them from Cuba.

Outdoor Art Serves the Public until New York’s Museums Reopen

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that New York City’s museums can reopen beginning August 24. In the meanwhile, New York City’s tourism and marketing division has put together a list of outdoor and open-air art available for viewing by the public throughout all five boroughs.

Two Museums Fear Their Gauguins May Be Fakes

Fabrice Fourmanoir, a Gauguin enthusiast, investigator and collector who exposed the J. Paul Getty Museum’s Gauguin sculpture as a fake has now set his astute gaze on paintings at the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Fourmanoir has alleged that both paintings are not Gauguins and were instead commissioned and sold by a Parisian art dealer. The museums are considering a scientific examination of the paintings to confirm their origin and authenticity.

EUROPE

Raphael’s True Cause of Death Revealed

Scientists have dispelled the myth that Renaissance painter Raphael, noted by historians as having had many trysts, died of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. A new study conducted at the University of Milan Bicocca has concluded that the artist likely died instead from a pulmonary disease similar to pneumonia. Raphael’s physicians subjected him to bloodletting, a process wherein blood is drawn from a patient to rid the body of disease. As physicians of that period did not typically practice bloodletting for lung ailments, it is suspected that Raphael’s doctors failed to properly diagnose his symptoms. Moreover, it has been determined that rather than aiding in his recovery, the bloodletting likely contributed to and quickened his death. Raphael died in 1520 in Rome at the age of 37.

Selfie Menace Continues

Security camera footage has confirmed that an Austrian tourist broke two toes off of a sculpture by famed neoclassical sculptor Antonio Canova. The damage occurred at the Gipsoteca Museum in Possagno, when the tourist sat on a sculpture of Paolina (Pauline) Bonaparte, Napoleon’s sister, to take a selfie. The perpetrator surrendered to authorities. The work damaged was an original plaster cast model dating back to 1804, the marble version of which is kept at the Galleria Borghese in Rome. Artnet previously assembled a round-up of tragic cases of art being damaged by tourists angling for better selfies.

Building Decorated by Picasso Demolished, Triggering Protests

Despite ongoing protests, the Norwegian government has begun tearing down the Y-block office building in Oslo, part of its governmental headquarters in the city damaged in the 2011 terrorist attack by Anders Breivik, who detonated a car bomb. Prior to any demolition of the Y-block building, Picasso’s The Fishermen, a sand-blasted 250-ton section of the building’s facade, and The Seagull, a 60-ton floor-to-ceiling drawing in the building’s lobby, were removed and relocated. Opponents of the demolition argue that the Y-block building’s brutalist architecture should be preserved, and that Picasso’s works and the building “belong together.” They also argue that the demolition is, in essence, a symbolic completion of what Breivik wanted, to erase the symbols of democracy. Construction of the new governmental headquarters is expected to be completed in 2025.

Ancient Greek Architecture Likely Catered to the Handicapped

New research conducted at California State University suggests that the stone ramps featured on many ancient Greek temples were primarily built to accommodate the disabled and mobility impaired. While these ramps may have served other purposes, such as enabling transportation of materials, they were featured most prominently in quantity and size at temples dedicated to Asclepius, the Greek god of healing. As these sites drew in many visitors with disabilities, illnesses and ailments, who would have had difficulty navigating stairs, it is now thought that the ramps were specifically crafted to assist these guests.

Croatian Museums and Historic Sites Can’t Catch a Break

After the coronavirus forced churches, galleries and museums throughout Croatia to close, in March 2020, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake rocked the country, damaging its largest Gothic-style cathedral and many other landmarks, including the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb. The strongest earthquake recorded in the country in almost 150 years made many buildings structurally unsound, and museum owners began storing works in their facility basements. On July 24, 2020, that was no longer an option when a severe storm hit Zagreb, leading to massive flooding. As water surged into their basements, The Archaeological Museum and Museum of Decorative Arts, among others, struggled to protect their collections. The full extent of the damage from the storm is not yet known, but expected to be significant.

Restoration Plans for Notre Dame by Traditional Methods Finalized

After discussing the issue for more than a year, the decision was made to reconstruct the roof and spires of the renowned Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral to resemble their appearance prior to the April 2019 fire. Despite calls from French President Emmanuel Macron to rebuild these features in a contemporary style, they will be constructed using the original material and traditional methods to the extent possible. In addition to the roof and spires, the vault will need to be repaired and three of the cathedral’s gables will have to be dismantled and rebuilt. After this work is completed, the building’s statues, which fortunately were removed just days prior to the fire, will be returned. The reconstruction of Notre Dame is scheduled to be completed in 2024.

© 2021 Wilson ElserNational Law Review, Volume X, Number 233
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About this Author

Of Counsel

Jana Slavina Farmer represents client interests in connection with design professional matters and architects’ copyright; intellectual property matters involving copyright, sale and transfer of rights in artwork; protection of valuable creative assets; and general commercial disputes. In addition to handling cases before New York state courts, she defends clients in federal courts and in arbitrations and employs mediation to facilitate the cost-effective resolution of disputes. Jana also has experience conducting e-discovery and cross-border discovery in complex cases...

914.872.7247
Nicole Haimson Intellectual Property Attorney Wilson Elser Albany, NY
Associate

Nicole Haimson is a civil litigator who focuses her practice on intellectual property, business, commercial litigation and insurance defense matters. She also handles claims related to construction defects, product liability, employment and healthcare.

Prior to joining Wilson Elser, Nicole worked at the New York State Office of the Attorney General and at another prominent law firm. At the Attorney General's Office, Nicole gained substantial experience defending lawsuits against the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision and New York State Office of...

518.320.3608
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