February 3, 2023

Volume XIII, Number 34


February 02, 2023

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

February 01, 2023

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

January 31, 2023

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

DOJ to IEEE: Yes, Injunctive Relief Should Be Available for SEPs, and Stop Saying Otherwise

Last Thursday, September 10, 2020, the U.S. Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division (“DOJ”) issued an updated Business Review Letter (“2020 Letter”) to the Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (“IEEE”) clarifying the DOJ’s views on licensing and enforcement practices related to standard essential patents (“SEPs”).  The 2020 Letter is part of a continuing series of policy statements favoring a diminished role for antitrust enforcement in intellectual property disputes, following its amicus brief opposing the FTC’s position in the recently-decided Qualcomm decision. As if to emphasize the point, DOJ also announced last week a joint workshop with the USPTO to promote innovation in the life science sector. The workshop will discuss the importance of intellectual property rights, and include panels on how patents and copyrights incentivize and reward innovation.

The 2020 Letter takes an aggressive and forceful tone and therefore deserves close examination. The DOJ lamented the misuse of its earlier 2015 letter to the IEEE (“2015 Letter”) regarding the IEEE’s Patent Policy, complaining that the 2015 Letter was “frequently and incorrectly” cited “as an endorsement of the IEEE Policy” that limits SEP holders rights to seek injunctive relief, “which was not [DOJ’s] purpose or intent.”  The 2020 Letter also updated portions of the analysis applied in the 2015 Letter to incorporate what has actually occurred in SEP licensing and enforcement rather than what the DOJ speculated would occur back in 2015.  These altered expected outcomes include both that (1) the perceived risk of “hold-up” never materialized and instead “hold-out” became pervasive, and that (2) the landscape related to licensing of SEPs and governance of standard development organizations (“SDOs”) (sometimes also referred to as SSOs) had changed.  The major take away from the updated 2020 Letter is that the DOJ now seems to explicitly support the right of SEP holders to seek injunctive relief, stating that “[d]enying essential patent holders access to injunctive relief has the potential to lessen returns for inventors and thereby to harm incentives for future innovation.”  Also noteworthy, although not discussed at length in this post, is the 2020 Letter’s attempt to redefine the appropriate royalty base for SEPs.  As with injunctive relief, case law and policy surrounding royalty rates has shifted from an emphasis on the “smallest saleable patent practicing unit” to a recommendation that “parties should be given flexibility to fashion licenses that reward and encourage innovation,” which may include end products as the royalty base.  

The DOJ analyzed IEEE’s patent policy, at the IEEE’s request, in the 2015 Letter, providing guidance on the DOJ’s then current antitrust and anticompetitive enforcement practices.  At the time, the IEEE policy was seen by many as an attempt to chill innovation and punish SEP owners by limiting their rights by, for example, limiting the ability of IEEE SEP holders to seek injunctive relief.  In the 2015 Letter, the DOJ did not explicitly reject this approach from IEEE, leading many to believe that the DOJ’s failure to affirmatively reject this approach was an endorsement of it. 

The DOJ in its 2020 Letter says not so.  After acknowledging that the 2015 Letter did not anticipate that “hold-out” would be more problematic than “hold-up”, the DOJ explicitly supports SEP owners in their pursuit of injunctive relief to enforce their SEPs especially in the event of hold-out from an unwilling licensee:

Injunctive relief is a critical enforcement mechanism and bargaining tool—subject to traditional principles of equity—that may allow a patent holder (including an essential patent holder) to obtain the appropriate value for its invention when a licensee is unwilling to negotiate reasonable terms.

Importantly, the 2020 Letter recognizes that SDOs and participants in SDOs need to avoid both “hold-up” and “hold-out” and specifically cautioned the IEEE (and SDOs generally) that “SDO policy updates should encourage good-faith bilateral licensing negotiation by both patent holders and implementers.” (emphasis in the original).

Since the DOJ’s 2015 Letter, reports of SDO industry influence and misuse to limit competition and delay innovation have increased significantly—something the DOJ did not contemplate at the time.  Now in the 2020 Letter, the DOJ admonished SDOs’ behavior, particularly the IEEE, for its role in disruptive and “opaque” standards development. The 2020 Letter encouraged the IEEE, and all SDOs, to balance leadership and abolish anticompetitive policies or rules that favor certain interests, such as implementers, at the detriment of others, like innovators. 

The 2020 Letter is highly unusual in its public and forceful rebuke of the IEEE. The DOJ felt it appropriate to correct the overall conversation related to the U.S. treatment of SEPs and FRAND licensing, in part because of how the 2015 Letter was being misused by other antitrust enforcers, including foreign enforcers, to impede dynamic competition by discouraging the free exercise of IP rights.  Since 2015, the anticipated SEP “hold-up” concern has dissipated (or, in actuality, never materialized), illustrating that antitrust laws are not an appropriate vehicle to challenge SEP owners on “what are essentially contractual disputes between private parties engaged in the pursuit of technological innovation.”  Demonstrating the point, antitrust concerns appear to be on the wane for SEP patent assertion in the U.S., in light of recent developments such as the Ninth Circuit ruling in the FTC v. Qualcomm case, and the dismissal of an antitrust complaint filed against Avanci.  Even with these recent developments in the U.S., the issue is still very much open in Europe, where implementers continue to try and shield themselves by relying on German or European competition law

While the 2020 Letter is directed to SEPs, the DOJ’s clarification may have far-reaching impacts.  The most important of these potential impacts are the effect the 2020 Letter may have on patent holders’ ability to obtain injunctions for patent infringement in the U.S. which since eBay has been outside of pharma cases nearly unobtainable.  In fact, since 2006, the injunction denial rates “at a minimum, [have] quadrupled.”  Ryan T. Holte, The Misinterpretation of eBay v. MercExchange and Why: An Analysis of the Case History, Precedent, and Parties, Chapman L. Rev., Vol. 18:3, 677-719 (June 6, 2015).  In turn, the inability for U.S. patent holders to obtain injunctive relief encouraged patent owners to explore other U.S. enforcement venues, including section 337 proceedings at the ITC and post-grant proceedings with the PTO, and look abroad for effective enforcement of patent rights.  The 2020 Letter is one of many positive SEP developments over the last several weeks in Europe and the U.S. which bode well for rebalancing the SEP licensing market to promote “good faith bilateral licensing” of the kind highlighted in the 2020 Letter.

©1994-2023 Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. All Rights Reserved.National Law Review, Volume X, Number 258

About this Author

Michael Renaud IP Litgation Attorney Mintz Levin
Member / Chair, Intellectual Property Division

Michael is a highly regarded intellectual property litigator and patent strategist who helps clients protect and generate revenue from their patent holdings. Intellectual Asset Magazine has repeatedly recognized him in its select IAM Patent 1000 and IAM Patent Strategy 300 publications. Clients rely on his counsel regarding sensitive licensing agreement negotiations, acquisitions, and other technology transactions. He leads a team known for its ability to translate complex technology and its value to non-technical professionals — in court and business negotiations.

Michael is...

James Wodarski IP Litigation Attorney Mintz Levin

Jim is a seasoned trial lawyer who concentrates his practice on intellectual property litigation. He skillfully represents clients in federal district and appellate courts, including the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, as well as the International Trade Commission. He handles disputes involving smartphones, core processor circuits, digital imaging software, telecommunications devices, and LED lighting systems, and many other technologies. And he has more than two decades of experience with complex civil litigation, including insurance, securities, and First...

Joseph M. Miller Antitrust Attorney Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky & Popeo

Joe is a seasoned antitrust attorney and Co-chair of the firm’s Antitrust Practice. He has nearly 30 years of experience that spans roles in private practice, as a general counsel, and with federal antitrust enforcement agencies. He focuses his practice on providing strategic transactional advice and representing clients in government investigations and merger reviews. Joe primarily works with clients in the health care industry.

His work includes representing health care companies before the FTC and DOJ in merger reviews, counseling them on the antitrust aspects of transactions,...

Daniel B. Weinger Patent Litigation Attorney Mintz Law Firm

Daniel's practice in intellectual property focuses on patent litigation, both at the International Trade Commission and the Federal District Courts. Daniel has participated in all phases of patent litigation, including active engagement in multiple evidentiary hearings at the International Trade Commission. He has done work in a variety of technology areas, including computer software, software architecture, GPS, network devices, semiconductors, converged devices, and LED lighting.

Prior to joining Mintz Levin, Daniel worked as a database...

Kara Grogan Trade & Patent Attorney Mintz Levin

Kara focuses her practice on Section 337 cases in the International Trade Commission, patent litigation, and assisting clients with licensing agreements. She has experience in drafting motions, discovery requests, and license arrangements. She works with clients in a broad range of industries, including consumer products and technology.

Kara was a Law Clerk at Mintz in 2018. While attending law school, she served as a law clerk in the Office of Unfair Import Investigations at the US International Trade Commission; a legal intern at a Massachusetts-based global athletic footwear and...