August 14, 2022

Volume XII, Number 226


August 12, 2022

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

August 11, 2022

Subscribe to Latest Legal News and Analysis

A GDPR Update for Employers, Part I: Determining Whether Your Organization’s HR Data Processing Is Covered

Much has happened since the European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect on May 25, 2018. Many EU countries have enacted national legislation to implement and expand the requirements of the GDPR, while other developments have directly affected employers and created new obligations regarding the collection and processing of human resources (HR) data.

This article, which addresses threshold issues of GDPR coverage, is the first in a four-part series of articles examining national legislation, opinions, and guidelines that have been enacted or promulgated clarifying the GDPR’s requirements. Subsequent articles in the series will cover data protection impact assessments, claims alleging violations of the GDPR, enforcement actions, and fines that have been issued.

On November 16, 2018, the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) issued for public comment guidelines on the territorial scope of the GDPR. The EDPB—the successor to the pre-GDPR Article 29 Working Party—consists of representatives from the supervisory authorities or data regulators of each EU country and the European Data Protection Supervisor. The EDPB issues opinions, guidelines, and recommendations for best practices regarding the GDPR.

The EDPB Guidelines provide that the GDPR applies to the processing of personal data in two circumstances. First, the GDPR applies to data processing in connection with the activities of an “establishment” within the EU. An organization will be deemed to have an establishment in the EU if it exercises a real and effective activity through stable arrangements within the territory of the EU, regardless of its legal form (e.g., subsidiary, branch, or office). The presence of a single employee or sales representative in the EU will be sufficient to create an establishment in the EU so long as the employee or sales representative acts with a sufficient degree of stability. However, a non-EU entity will not be deemed to have an establishment in the EU solely because (1) its website is accessible from the EU, (2) it is using a data processor located in the EU, or (3) it is required to designate a representative in the EU.

If an entity has an establishment within the EU, any data processing that is inextricably linked to the activities of the establishment will be covered under the GDPR regardless of where the processing takes place. Thus, if an employer with an establishment in the EU outsources its HR data processing to a third-party service provider, parent company, or other affiliated company, such processing will be covered under the GDPR even though the outsourced data processing takes place outside the EU. Further, if an establishment as part of its business activities in the EU processes the HR data of employees or job applicants who are not located in the EU, then such processing will be covered under the GDPR. For example, if a French parent company processes the personal data of its U.S.-based employees, such processing will be covered under the GDPR.

Second, even if an organization does not have an establishment in the EU, the GDPR will apply to the data processing of individuals who are in the EU if “the processing activities are related to (a) the offering of goods or services, irrespective of whether a payment of the data subject is required, to such data subjects in the [European] Union; or (b) the monitoring of their behaviour as far as their behaviour takes place within the [European] Union.”

The Guidelines state that offering employment is not considered to be “offering goods or services.” Thus, employers that do not have establishments in the EU will be covered under the GDPR only if they monitor the behavior of job applicants, employees, and former employees in the EU. The Guidelines also provide that data subjects “in the [European] Union” are persons who are located in the EU at the time they are monitored for their behavior. The nationality, residence, or legal status of the individual is irrelevant. Thus, non-EU expatriate employees working in the EU will be covered. Finally, the Guidelines confirm that “monitoring” includes online tracking, closed-circuit television (CCTV) video surveillance, the monitoring of mobile devices, and other offline activities such as the monitoring of health status if the purpose for processing the data is to analyze or predict personal preferences, behaviors, and attitudes.

Based on the Guidelines, the following types of HR data processing are covered under the GDPR:

  • All HR data processing performed by an EU company or a subsidiary or affiliate of a non-EU company located in the EU that employs one or more employees and regularly conducts business within the EU. This is true even if the processing of the HR data is performed on behalf of the establishment by a processor such as a third-party service provider, parent company, or affiliated company, regardless of the location of the processor. Further, data processing of employees or job applicants who are located outside the EU will be covered if such data processing is inextricably linked to the activities of the EU company.

  • HR data processing performed by a non-EU company that employs one or more remote employees or that contracts with one or more sales representatives who exercise real and effective business activity within the EU.

  • Data processing performed by a non-EU company (such as a U.S. parent company) that involves the monitoring of employees based in the EU, including the monitoring of employee computer, email, and Internet usage; the monitoring of employee location data through GPS, access controls, or surveillance cameras; or the monitoring of employees’ personal social media accounts.

  • Data processing performed by a non-EU company that recruits job applicants from the EU if the company monitors their behavior as part of the recruitment process (such as monitoring social media accounts) and makes predictions regarding their suitability for employment based on such monitoring.

On the other hand, the following types of HR data processing are not covered under the GDPR:

  • Data processing of EU job applicants performed by a non-EU based company that does not have an establishment in the EU where the company does not recruit and monitor EU job applicants and the EU job applicants simply have access to the company’s online application process.

  • Data processing performed by a non-EU based company that does not have an establishment regarding EU citizen job applicants who reside outside the EU and, therefore, are not present in the EU at the time of the collection or processing of their data.

The EDPB accepted comments from all interested stakeholders and citizens on the draft Guidelines until January 18, 2019.  The final Guidelines are expected to be issued in the next several months.

Part two of this series will address additional data protection requirements imposed by individual EU Member States implementing the GDPR.

© 2022, Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C., All Rights Reserved.National Law Review, Volume IX, Number 100

About this Author

Grant Petersen, Labor, Employment, Ogletree Deakins

Mr. Petersen represents and counsels employers regarding a broad range of U.S. and international labor and employment law issues, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption law issues, and data privacy and data protection law issues. He represents clients in a wide variety of industries, including manufacturing, service, healthcare, financial, retail, and food processing, as well as multinational companies and trade associations.

Simon McMenemy, Labor Employment, Managing Partner, New York, OgleTree Deakins law firm
Managing Partner

Simon is an experienced employment law practitioner. He was called to the Bar in 1995, and subsequently qualified as a solicitor while working in the employment and incentives team of a major global law firm. He has advised on the employment aspects of many major international and multi-jurisdictional mergers and acquisitions. He also has a wide range of experience in advising companies on change management, particularly in relation to acquired rights, pensions and benefits. Simon advises on the increasingly complex issues arising on data privacy and data protection in the workplace and is...

44 (0)20 7822 7620
Danielle Vanderzanden, Ogletree Deakins Law Firm, Labor Law and Privacy Attorney

Ms. Vanderzanden is a Shareholder in the Boston office and Co-Chair of the firm’s Data Privacy practice group.  She specializes in the areas of privacy, restrictive covenant, wage and hour, discrimination and labor and employment litigation and counseling.  She devotes her practice to helping employers with employment-related disputes, conducting investigations and providing counsel to clients seeking to reduce their potential for liability to their employees and third parties.  She has personally conducted dozens of investigations, including investigations involving...

Stephen Riga, Ogletree Deakins Law Firm, Labor Law and Privacy Attorney
Of Counsel

Mr. Riga concentrates his practice in the area of employee benefits and privacy and security issues.

Mr. Riga's benefits practice includes work with funds and employers to design, maintain, merge and terminate qualified retirement plans and health and welfare plans. Mr. Riga prepares determination letters and voluntary compliance program submissions and assists employers and funds on COBRA, Medicare Part D, and HIPAA compliance. Mr. Riga evaluates contribution and withdrawal liability obligations, and identifies retirement and health and welfare...

Cécile Martin Mergers & Acquisitions Attorney
Managing Partner

Cécile Martin is the Managing Partner of the Ogletree Deakins Paris office and is a co-chair of the firm’s Mergers and Acquisitions practice group. She advises clients on compensation policies (including material risk takers), discrimination and harassment litigation, corporate restructuring, mass redundancies plans as well as collective litigation. By starting her career at the French Data Protection Agency (CNIL), Cecile has developed leading edge skills particularly on topics related to GDPR employee monitoring at the workplace, whistleblowing alerts, social media use and international...