A Look Ahead: Top 5 Health Law Issues for 2014
From Affordable Care Act implementation to the continued transition to quality and evidence-based medicine, we expect to see a host of new regulatory and industry changes in 2014. Moreover, federal and state governments will continue to ramp up detection and enforcement of fraud, abuse, and other laws. These changes provide ample opportunities for lawyers to represent and counsel health care industry clients.
In addition to health lawyers, these changes and new opportunities will also affect lawyers who practice in other areas, including business, antitrust, technology, employee benefits, and elder law. Below is an overview of five hot issues in health care law that practitioners – new and seasoned – should monitor in 2014.
1. Affordable Care Act Implementation
Exchanges and the Individual Market. As millions of Americans obtain insurance on the individual market through Exchanges (a.k.a. the “Marketplace”), the ACA individual mandate and the individual insurance market will create a host of issues for health lawyers in 2014. Beginning early in the year, health lawyers will be called on to address coverage, enrollment, and compliance issues. Attorneys and firms looking to expand their ACA practice should consider employee benefits regulations and related legal issues as ACA implementation continues and employers look for help understanding and complying with coverage requirements and pay or play rules.
Medicaid. The ACA’s expansion of Medicaid will also bring increased attention to the Medicaid program in 2014. Attorneys should be prepared to see increased scrutiny of program integrity in the coming year, including inspector general attention at the state and federal levels (e.g., program audits). Attorneys may be called upon to address these and other Medicaid issues in 2014, including issues with eligibility, covered benefits, and movement between Exchanges and Medicaid.
Tax Exemption. Section 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code, introduced as part of the ACA, requires, among other things, that tax-exempt hospitals conduct a community health needs assessment and adopt a written financial assistance policy. Hospitals that do not meet the 501(r) requirements risk an excise tax, taxing of hospital revenue, and revocation of exempt status. Proposed regulations outlining the 501(r) requirements were released in 2013, and final rules are expected in 2014.
2. Health Information Privacy and Security
This year is shaping up to be another big year for health information privacy and security and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as providers, payers, and businesses that support the health care industry (including lawyers) adapt to new compliance requirements and increased liability under the Omnibus Rule regulatory scheme.
This is an area that will be important for health lawyers, as the Omnibus Rule outlines clear compliance requirements for lawyers providing legal services to providers and payers. (For more information on lawyers as business associates, see "Casting a Wider Net: Health Information Privacy is Not Just For Health Lawyers" in the September 2013 Wisconsin Lawyer).
Health lawyers are also awaiting the 2014 release of another major HIPAA rule – expected to outline requirements for tracking uses and disclosures of health information – as well as legislative changes in Wisconsin dealing with confidentiality of mental health records (an in-depth Wisconsin Lawyer article on this is forthcoming).
Lawyers that deal with health information should be familiar with HIPAA and other federal and state laws protecting the confidentiality of health information to address an increased emphasis on HIPAA audits, security, and technology issues in 2014.
3. Provider Reimbursement and Emphasis on Quality Care
Medicare Billing and Payment. As of this writing, Congress is still debating options for repealing the sustainable growth rate (SGR), which is part of a reimbursement formula used to calculate Medicare physician payments. For years, the SGR has resulted in cuts to physician payments. However, Congress has always used SGR “doc fixes” to extend and delay the cuts (most recently, on Dec. 18, 2013, a 23.7 percent cut set to take effect Jan. 1, 2014, was delayed until March).
However, bipartisan efforts in Congress may make 2014 the year of the SGR repeal. Health care attorneys should take note because the SGR repeal will mean significant changes in how Medicare physician reimbursement is calculated, and the wide-spread effect will touch any number of contractual arrangements that use Medicare reimbursement to set compensation terms.
Quality-based Reimbursement. We have seen a steady change from productivity-based compensation models, which pay for volume, to quality-based reimbursement models, and 2014 will continue this progression. Attorneys that represent physicians and physician practices should be prepared for the introduction (or addition) of quality metrics in physician compensation arrangements, as well as an increase in co-management arrangements and opportunities, which engage physicians in hospital management to better align physicians and hospitals.
Narrow Networks. With additional products available in the individual insurance market in 2014 and an increased focus on performance-based contracting, payers are tying rate increases to quality metrics and tightening provider networks. Attorneys representing physician groups may see an increase in narrow network products and, as a result, their clients’ exclusion from networks.
Changing reimbursement concepts are not new but some methodologies will affect physician behavior, require more patient engagement, and influence efficiency as the industry demands accountable care and continues to introduce quality-based incentives.
4. Increased Joint Venture Activity and Market Consolidation
We expect to see increased joint venture activity and market consolidation in 2014. Increasing market share and patient population allows providers and payers to introduce and monitor their quality care initiatives to a broader base of patients and standardize care with the hope of better outcomes and efficiency. Attorneys representing parties in these transactions should be mindful of fair market value and other fraud and abuse requirements, leasing and construction considerations, and potential antitrust implications.
5. Government Enforcement
The health care industry has seen increased government scrutiny, including emphasis on payment, program integrity, and compliance. From Medicare and Medicaid compliance audits, Strike Teams, increased HIPAA penalties, overpayment recoupment, to fraud and abuse self-disclosures and intervening in whistleblower suits, the federal government is improving its enforcement mechanisms used against hospitals and providers. The federal agencies and their contractors have increased their damages and penalty recoveries over the last few years, and we expect this to continue in 2014.
The primary goal of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General’s (OIG) strategic plan for 2014 to 2018 is fighting fraud, waste, and abuse. In order to achieve its goal, the OIG intends to build upon existing enforcement models, refine self-disclosure protocols, and use all appropriate means (including exclusions and debarments) to maximize recovery.
If you are new to health care, or if you want to expand your practice into health law, these areas of strict liability and increased enforcement will be fundamental to your practice in 2014. Understanding the complex regulations and strict liability statutes is fundamental to providing sound legal and business advice to health care clients.
Retail health clinics and on-site health services, changes in medical malpractice standards, increased emphasis on post-acute care, non-physician health care professionals, and the corporate practice of medicine will also be hot topics in 2014.
This article was first published in WisBar Inside Track, Vol. 6, No. 1, a State Bar of Wisconsin publication.