The Role of the Ballot Initiative in Medicaid Expansion
In the last couple of months, ballot initiatives have significantly affected health policy and the health industry as a whole. Constituents are becoming more involved in policy matters that have traditionally been left to elected officials in state legislatures. On January 25, 2018, Oregon held a special election for a ballot initiative that asked whether Oregonians would support funding the state Medicaid program by taxing health plans and hospitals. The ballot initiative passed with a margin of 62 percent of voters supporting the measure. The measure proposed a 1.5 percent tax on insurance premiums and a .7 percent tax on large hospitals to help fund Medicaid expansion. Proponents argued that 350,000 people who receive health coverage through Medicaid expansion would lose coverage if the measure was not supported.
Oregon is not the only state that has used a ballot initiative to substantially affect health policy. On November 7, 2017, Maine was the first state to use a ballot initiative to expand Medicaid coverage. The ballot measure overwhelming passed without the support of the Governor. The Governor is now withholding the implementation of the measure due to fundamental issues on how to fund Medicaid expansion.
Traditionally, ballot initiatives are frequently used to amend state constitutions or topics regarding public health. Health policy issues such as Medicaid and funding for health care seldom had direct input from constituents. However, as many states are faced with one party legislature, ballot initiatives have become a way to circumvent the traditional means of legislating. Constituents are actively using ballot initiative to help shape policy issues that directly affect the health industry. About 24 states have ballot initiative processes that allow constituents to bypass state legislatures by placing proposed statutes on the ballot. Although states have different processes, a ballot initiative requires a specific number of signatures for an initiative to be placed on a ballot. In states with an indirect initiative process, such as Maine, ballots with enough signatures are submitted to the legislature where elected officials have an opportunity to act on the proposal. If the legislature rejects the measure, submits a different proposal or takes no action, the measure goes to the ballot for a vote. In states with direct initiatives, such as Oregon, proposals go directly on the ballot for a vote.
With the success of Oregon and Maine, other states may utilize the ballot initiative process to substantially change health policy in their state. For example, after years of failing to expand Medicaid in Utah, advocates have already begun to gather signatures needed by April 15, 2018 to put Medicaid expansion on the 2018 ballot. Additionally, advocates in Idaho have filed paperwork for a ballot initiative to expand Medicaid.
As more states consider ballot initiatives as a legislative tool for health policy, stakeholders should not only look to legislative assemblies for changes in health policy but ballot initiatives that can affect the industry. Grassroots advocacy has always played a major role in shaping state policy and now substantial health policy can be added to the list.