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Elements of a SOX Whistleblower Retaliation Claim - Chapter 2

To prevail, a SOX whistleblower must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that:

  • they engaged in protected activity (they made a protected disclosure under Section 806);

  • the employer knew that they engaged in the protected activity;

  • they suffered an unfavorable personnel action;

  • the protected activity was a contributing factor in the unfavorable action.

Once a SOX whistleblower has proven these elements by a preponderance of the evidence, the burden is on the employer to prove by clear and convincing evidence that it would have taken the same adverse action in the absence of the employee engaging in protected activity.

Can a whistleblower sue an individual under SOX?

Yes, a whistleblower can bring a retaliation claim under SOX against individuals who have the functional ability to retaliate against the whistleblower, and are aware of the whistleblower’s protected conduct (or influenced by a person with knowledge of the protected conduct). 

The Fourth Circuit and a California district court have held that directors may be held individually liable under SOX as agents of a publicly traded company. See Jones v. Southpeak Interactive Corp. of Delaware, 777 F.3d 658, 675 (4th Cir.2015); Wadler v. Bio-Rad Labs, Inc., No. 15-cv-02356-JCS, 2015 WL 6438670 (N.D. Cal. Oct. 23, 2015).

To learn more about SOX whistleblower law, download the new eBook Sarbanes-Oxley Whistleblower Law: Robust Protection for Corporate Whistleblowers

Chapter 1 -Whistleblowers Protected by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: SOX Whistleblowers


1 Bechtel v. Admin. Review Bd., 710 F.3d 443, 447 (2d Cir. 2013)

© 2017 Zuckerman Law

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About this Author

Jason Zuckerman, Whistleblower Litigation Attorney, Washington DC  Law Firm
Principal

Jason Zuckerman is Principal of Zuckerman Law and litigates whistleblower retaliation, wrongful discharge, non-compete, and other employment-related claims.  Zuckerman serves as Plaintiff Co-Chair of the Whistleblower Subcommittee of the ABA Labor and Employment Section’s Employee Rights and Responsibilities Committee, and in 2012, the Secretary of Labor appointed Zuckerman to serve on the Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee. 

Prior to founding Zuckerman Law, Zuckerman served as Senior Legal Advisor to the Special Counsel at the U.S...

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